Diagnóstico clínico y tratamiento de la disfunción olfatoria relacionada con COVID-19: revisión de la literatura

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Paulina Elizabeth Bombón-Albán
Luís Geovanny Escobar-Ronquillo
Christian Adrián Cisneros-Hinostroza

Resumen

Introducción: la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) es una enfermedad pandémica, que ha causado más de seis millones de muertes en todo el mundo. El cuadro clínico de la infección puede variar en función de la gravedad de la enfermedad y suele incluir síntomas generales, otorrinolaringológicos y neurológicos.
Objetivo: proporcionar una revisión narrativa de la literatura científica sobre el diagnóstico clínico y tratamiento de la disfunción olfatoria relacionada con COVID-19. Resultados: la disfunción olfatoria definida como la capacidad reducida o distorsionada
de oler al inhalar (olfato ortonasal) o al comer (olfato retronasal), a menudo se informa en casos leves o incluso asintomáticos. La prevalencia de la disfunción
olfatoria puede variar con respecto al entorno clínico, con tasas de pérdida total del olfato hasta del 70 % en pacientes con COVID-19 leve. Además, hasta la fecha existen pocos artículos que evalúen prospectivamente las tasas de recuperación de la
disfunción olfatoria en pacientes con COVID-19. Conclusión: COVID-19 se asocia con disfunción olfatoria en diversos pacientes. Se requiere una investigación activa y colaborativa para delinear la historia natural y el manejo apropiado de la disfunción olfatoria en esta virulenta enfermedad. Mientras tanto, el diagnóstico y los tratamientos dirigidos como el entrenamiento olfatorio pueden ser útiles en la disfunción olfatoria relacionada con COVID-19.

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Bombón-Albán PE, Escobar-Ronquillo LG, Cisneros-Hinostroza CA. Diagnóstico clínico y tratamiento de la disfunción olfatoria relacionada con COVID-19: revisión de la literatura. Acta otorrinolaringol cir cabeza cuello [Internet]. 30 de septiembre de 2022 [citado 5 de diciembre de 2022];50(3):212 - 219. Disponible en: https://revista.acorl.org.co/index.php/acorl/article/view/636
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